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APA Style Guidelines

Rules | Resources | Books | Magazine Articles | Database Articles | Websites | Films | Encyclopedias | Newspaper Articles | Interviews | In-text Citations


Basic Rules


1. Reference page should be titled as "References" (do not use quotation marks) and should be double spaced.

2. Sources are listed alphabetically by author's last name. If an author is not available for the source, then list the source by title.

3. Use initials for an author, creator, or editor's first name.

4. All additional lines for each citation listed should be indented using a hanging indent (half an inch from the left margin).

5. If no date is given use (n.d.).




  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: Two copies are located in the library under call number REF BF76.7 .P83 2001 (Reference only; does not circulate).



with no author

Illegal immigration: A reference handbook. (2007).

     Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.

with one author

LeMay, M. C. (2007). Illegal immigration: A reference handbook.

     Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.

with two authors

Jones, R. S. & Patterson, J. P. (2008). A history of the Roman Empire.

     New York, NY: History Publications, Inc.

with three to seven authors

Jones, R. S., Patterson, J. P., & Sanderson, M. (2008). A new history of the

     Roman Empire. London, England: Royal Publications, Inc.

with more than seven authors

Miller, F.H., Choi, M.J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A.,

    Thomas, S. T., ... Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the

    blind and low-vision user. Technical Communications, 57, 323-335.

edited book

Andrews, C. (Ed.). (2008). Issues in nursing today. New York, NY: Medical

     Publications, Inc.

an e-Book

Shaver, B. (2011). Moving the eye through 2-D Design. Retrieved from

      http://site.ebrary.com/lib/salemcc/docDetail.action?docID= 10432132



Anderson, K. (2007, March 19). 1848: When America came of age. Time,

     44(12), 72-74.

Database Articles


Rahdert, M. C. (2007). Of personality and principal: 'The

     Supreme Court' Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(2), 14-15.

     Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.


Heider, K. (2013). Identifying Resources that Support Research and

      Publication in the Field of Early Childhood Education: Advice from

      an Education Librarian. Early Childhood Education Journal, 41(1),

      55-63. doiL10.1007/s10643-012-0568-z.




Dunham, W. (2007, March 15). Immense ice deposit found at south pole

     of Mars. Retrieved from http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20070315/


an online encyclopedia (*From www.wikipedia.org)

Plagiarism. (2004, July 22). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

     Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagiarism

  • If no author or creator can be found, start with title then date of publication or last update.
  • Retrieval dates are not required unless the source material is subject to change over time.




Winter, J. (Producer), & Noyce, P. (Director). (2003). Rabbit-proof fence

      [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. Films Media Group. (2009).

      Catholicism: The Unpredictable Rise of Rome. [Video file]. Films on

      Demand.  Retrieved from http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylist.




entire Encyclopedia or Dictionary

Lee, S. (Ed.). (2007). The Encyclopedia of the Middle East (5th ed.,

      Vols.1-5). London,England Royal Publications, Inc.

entry in an encyclopedia

Marks, S. (2008). Leonard Euler. In Great mathematicians in history

      (Vol.2, pp. 201-203). New York, NY: Learning Publications, Inc.


Newspaper Articles


with no author

Local town parade to be held on September 4th. (2008, July 15).

     Today's Sunbeam, p. A9

with one author

Grant, M. J. (2008, December 5). Local high school football team wins area

     championship. The News Journal, p. C4, C7.

letter to the editor

Smith, A. (2008, March 4). How to improve roads in today's economy 

     [Letter to the editor]. Philadelphia Inquirer, p. A13.




  • Interviews are not to be listed on your "Works Cited" page. Use parenthetical citations for referencing an interview. (See example below.)

Assemblywoman Margaret Smith said that she would not vote on the bill to raise state income tax in 2010 (M. Smth, personal communication, March 4, 2008).


In text citation (Parenthetical citation)


  • When stating information, facts, figures, or someone else's opinion from a source in the text of a research paper use a parenthetical citation to protect yourself from plagiarism. (See example below.)

General Patton moved his advancing 3rd Army north to relieve the American troops surrounded at Bastogne (McAdams, 2007, p. 325).